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Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York. Public Domain. Stones from Myanmar tend to have purplish red colors. Thai stones tend to appear more brownish red.
Photo by Cliff. Licensed under CC By 2. Rubies fluoresce in long or shortwave ultraviolet light. Myanmar rubies often fluoresce so strongly that the effect is noticeable even in sunlight.
They literally seem to glow, and aficionados greatly admire them. If this rutile is sufficiently abundant and precisely arranged, proper cabochon cutting can create star rubies.
Today, there are heating and diffusion processes that can increase the rutile content and improve the star effect in such gems.
Inclusions can also help identify the source of a ruby. See our article on identifying the origins of rubies and sapphires for more information.
Lab-created ruby can be manufactured by several different methods, including flame fusion , the Czochralski process , flux , and hydrothermal.
Flux-grown ruby crystals. Corundum gemstones, both rubies and sapphires, were first synthesized in the late 19th century. In , the French chemist Auguste Verneuil published his work on the flame fusion process, still known today as the Verneuil vair-NAY process.
As a result, the production of synthetic rubies and sapphires skyrocketed. Verneuil synthetic ruby boules largest about 2 inches long.
Many jewelers and gemologists have had the unpleasant task of telling the proud inheritors of treasured heirloom ruby rings or brooches that they contain flame fusion stones with more sentimental than commercial value.
In recent years, researchers have developed more complex creation processes. These simulate natural formation conditions so closely that colors and even inclusions look extremely natural.
Such stones are difficult for all but the most highly skilled professionals to identify as synthetic. See our articles on identifying synthetic gemstones and identifying inclusions found in synthetic gems for more information.
Like diamonds, rubies have industrial applications, so scientists have manufactured rubies in large quantities and sizes for research purposes.
This ct synthetic ruby was cut from a huge crystal originally grown in the s for laser applications. Rubies have a long history of enhancement.
Unless the seller specifically states the stone is unheated, you should assume that some kind of heat treatment has been used.
Usually, high temperature heating and controlled cooling clarify the stones. This process dissolves silk rutile inclusions and can also improve color tone and saturation.
Such treatments can only be detected in stones whose residual inclusions show signs of heat stress.
For more information on ruby enhancements, see our article on corundum treatments. This natural, mined ruby has received both heat and glass filling treatments.
Photo by Gemsphoto. Although Asia has historically been the major producer of ruby gems, there are many other sources including the United States, Australia, and, most recently, Africa.
Origin definitely affects the value of rubies. For more information on rubies from these and other parts of the world, see our article on identifying the origins of rubies and sapphires.
Stones from Myanmar generally command the highest prices. They also have extreme red fluorescence. Platinum pin with diamonds and Myanmar rubies approximately 0.
A fabled deposit known for over 1, years, a mining tract in the Mogok region has been the primary source of gem-quality rubies. The color of Mogok rubies often occurs in rich patches and swirls.
Color zoning can occur occasionally. Mogok rubies hold color in virtually any lighting condition, which contributes to the demand for these gem-quality stones.
The shape of Mogok ruby rough generally yields well-proportioned stones. In the late s, gem-quality rubies began appearing in much more abundance from the Möng Hsu region of Myanmar.
The rubies from Möng Hsu are a rich, fluorescent red and are easily distinguished by their dark core. These gems were often treated at very high temperatures to enhance their color.
Concerns were raised not only regarding heat treatment more generally but also over whether rubies from Möng Hsu should be distinguished from other Myanmar rubies.
Top-grade Sri Lankan reds are virtually indistinguishable from their Mogok brethren, but most tend towards purple or pink.
As with Sri Lankan sapphires, color accumulates in large stones. Stones of five carats or more can be quite magnificent.
Due to the bi-pyramidal shape of the rough, many stones are cut with overly deep pavilions. Sri Lankan ruby is strongly fluorescent, and asterism is common.
Star stone , Sri Lankan star ruby, oval cabochon, 1. The main attraction of ruby from Thailand and Cambodia is its high clarity , but the flat crystal shapes generally yield overly shallow stones.
Due to a high iron content, which quenches fluorescence, most of these rubies tend to have a garnet -red color. The others appear blackish, as in red garnets.
Thai stones are actually less purple than most Myanmar rubies. However, Myanmar-type rubies appear red all over the stone.
A rich red is seen not only in the areas where total internal reflection occurs but also in other facets, due to the red fluorescence and light-scattering silk of Myanmar rubies.
Some people actually preferred them. Today, production from Thailand and Cambodia is negligible.
Occasionally, one might hear statements about how Cambodian stones are superior to those from across the border in Thailand.
However, bear in mind that the deposits are essentially one that straddles the border. Ruby, Thailand 2. Madagascar produces mainly fine blue and pink sapphires.
However, two important ruby deposits have also been discovered. Vatomandry is said to produce better-quality material, lighter and brighter more reminiscent of Myanmar , while the Andilamena material is somewhat darker and not as clean.
Rutile silk seen in some pieces suggests that star stones may be forthcoming. Most stones from both deposits are heat-treated. Octagonal step-cut ruby, 2.
Stones from Kenya and Tanzania are magnificent when clean, but facet-grade material is rare. Like Myanmar, much of this material is strongly fluorescent.
These deposits have produced no star stones. In , rubies were discovered in Montepuez, Mozambique.
This deposit is becoming an important source of rubies. Untreated 1. The Jegdalek deposit in Afghanistan has produced rubies that rank with fine Mogok stones, but facetable material is in short supply.
Many of these stones contain small areas of blue color. They are also strongly fluorescent. If this deposit ever produces clean material, the market will surely take notice.
Rubies on matrix , 1. Nepal is a relatively new source of rubies. A goat herder discovered ruby in the mountains in the s.
The clarity of Nepalese ruby is usually low to mid-commercial, although gemmy crystals do exist. Typically, Nepalese crystals weigh 5 carats or less and have heavy color zoning, from pure red to pinkish-purplish red.
Vietnam had significant discoveries north of Hanoi in and in Luc Yen in Between November and March , one Vietnamese deposit produced more than 3 million carats of ruby and pink sapphire.
Word spread quickly in the trade that the color of the finest material was comparable with that from Myanmar. However, unlike the Mogok material, the clarity of Vietnamese ruby is mostly lower, with few eye-clean gems.
Like Afghanistan rubies, some Vietnamese rubies have small areas of blue color. Of course, they not as rare or costly.
Unscrupulous shopkeepers will easily be able to tell your level of experience with gemstones within minutes and use it to their advantage.
The government has announced its intention to set one up though. The mineral sillimanite is commonly dyed and passed off as these stones.
To determine if this is the case, look under magnification to see if the stone has a fibrous-like appearance, unusual opacity, and color concentrations.
Passing off glass as gemstones is an age-old practice. A glass gemstone will often have tiny air bubbles inside it or scratches on it.
In addition, when glass stones are held up to the light, they'll resemble a bulb. Light doesn't go through them in the same way as natural stones, whereby the stone's interior state can be seen.
If you have doubts, put the stone in your mouth! If it's glass, it will feel warm quite quickly. If you're tempted to buy emeralds, think twice, as these are the most dishonestly sold gemstones in the world.
Unless you're an expert with the proper tools, it can be impossible to tell which ones are authentic! In India, unlike western countries, gemstones are usually bought for their astrological value and healing properties rather than their beauty.
If this is the case, quality will be the highest concern. For example, heat treatment is said to destroy the powerful qualities of blue sapphires, making them bring back luck and misfortune.
Therefore, the intended use of the gemstones will have great bearing on what type of stones are suitable. Here are some questions to ask.
Jaipur , in Rajasthan , is the hub for gemstone polishing in India. Merchants are notorious for selling colored glass as gems there though.
Chameliwala Market on M. Road is another well-known place for gemstones and silver in Jaipur. For something special, most tourists feel more comfortable shopping at the Gem Palace on M.
It has been in business since and is among the most reputable places to buy jewelry in Jaipur. Amrapali is another luxury option and has its flagship store on M.
Road too. If you're interested in learning about gemstones in Jaipur, this tour conducted by a gemologist is recommended. You'll be able to participate in the whole manufacturing process from cutting to polishing.
For added assurance, get in touch with the Jewellers Association of Jaipur. They also hold a noteworthy annual jewelry and gemstone show.
Elsewhere in India, Surat in Gujarat is a diamond manufacturing hub. There are many diamond and gemstone traders in Mumbai's Zaveri Bazaar.
Written by. Sharell Cook. Sharell Cook lives in Mumbai full-time and has been writing about India travel for TripSavvy since Tripsavvy's Editorial Guidelines.
Share Pin Email. That eye-catching gemstone may look stunning, but is it actually real? Do check out how the color of the stone looks in a variety of lights, including daylight.
Is the stone synthetic or naturally formed? Has the stone been treated?Annoying pop-ups in demo. Metamorphosed crystalline limestones and dolomites, as well as other metamorphic rock types such as gneiss and schist. If this is the case, quality will be the highest concern. Appraising Rubies. Stones from Myanmar generally command the highest prices. The feature can be stopped here. Origin and color greatly affect the value of a ruby. Play free. Of course, they not as rare or costly. Players can choose the bets and wait for the stake to hit up. Gamble Feature Indian Ruby comes with impressive multiple gamble rounds. However, what's more, click at this page to note is that the majority of cut gemstones are actually synthetic but sold as natural. Specific Gravity. Stones from Kenya and Tanzania are magnificent when clean, but facet-grade material is rare. Typically, Nepalese crystals weigh 5 carats or less and have heavy color zoning, from pure red to pinkish-purplish red.